Outstanding pieces of the Archaeological Museum
1 IBERIAN-ROMAN ALTAR STONE
Limestone architectural element with relief on three of its four sides / faces, in which a ritual sacrifice of an animal is represented performed by an offerer or priest. On the first side, it's the sacrifice itself; in the second, the moment of the libations, and in the third, a pátera containing the sacred liquid poured on the altar.
It belongs to the Ibero-Roman culture (1st century BC - 1st century AD).
It was found in 1971, in Escañuela, in the Cortijo de la Torre.
* Patera is an object used in sacred rituals.
2 HISPANIC TERRA SIGILLATA
The Hispanic Terra Sigillata (sealed land), was a semi-luxurious tableware, widely used in Roman times (1st - 2nd century AD). These pieces were found in Los Villares de Andújar. In this district, 5 km east of Andújar, the old Isturgi, nicknamed Triumphale, was located.
One of its distinctive features is the mark or seal that it usually carries in the decoration (if it was decorated, which was the usual thing), or in the central interior part, when it lacked said decoration.
3 HERMA VOTIVA
This herma dedicated to Q. Pompeio, according to archaeologist Dr. Armin U. Stylow (Institute of Archeology of Munich), is unique in Hispania, and the reason for this uniqueness is due to the fact that it is a woman who takes the initiative of dedicate it, in this case, to her fiancé. Tradition established that it was the man who assumed this role.
Q.POMPEIO/Q.F.SERANO F/MANILA.M.F NAVINA/SOPONSA. "To Quinto Pompeyo Serano, son of Quinto, of his fiancée Manila Navina, daughter of Marco"
4 LUCERNE OF ROMAN VENERA
Lucerna with scallop on the disc, derived from the Dressel 3 “Andújar type” form. This oil lamp, which was used for lighting, has a tank at the bottom, where the oil was introduced, and several holes. The holes had different purposes, one was to fill the aforementioned tank, another, called the "breathing hole", to promote the combustion of the oil, and the last was used to locate the wick, which burned slowly, while it was lighting up. It is made from a mold, and was manufactured in Isturgi (Los Villares de Andújar).
Its chronology would be located in the high imperial period, 1st century BC. C.- 1st century AD. C.
5 ROMAN FUNERAL MASK
In Roman times funeral masks had a high moral value and legitimized the family's antiquity. The original masks were made after the death of the person, covering the face with hot wax, to capture the last imprint of him and perpetuate his face, at the time of his death. They presided over the funeral, in which the representatives of the ascendants (deceased of the family), wore the masks with costumes according to the category they had in life. The Romans distinguished between these masks that were made with wax and that reflected the "identity", and the portraits that represented the similarities. The piece on display is a sculptural model, after burial.
Approximate chronology 1st century BC. C. - 5th century d. C.
6 IBERIAN SCULPTORIC FRAGMENT
Iberian zoomorphic sculpture fragment possibly the hindquarters of a bull, although it can also be a lion, or even a horse. The use of this type of sculpture is typical of the Iberian culture, in burials or in sculptural ensembles, representing battles or other types of scenes, dedicated to highlighting a prince as a hero.
Chronology: 5th centuries BC. Inc. C. approximately.
7 IBERIAN CASTELE COIN AS DE CÁSTULO (Linares)
- Chronology: End of the 2nd century BC. C., approximately.
- Obverse: virile head beardless and diademic, facing to the right.
- Reverse: Winged Sphinx with a pointed helmet, marching to the right on a line. In the field, an eight-pointed star and Iberian letter whose reading would be CO. Below, in the exergue, the Iberian legend with the name of the mint, whose reading would be Castele.
Sphinx: fantastic animal usually with the head and neck of a woman, the body of a lion and the wings of a bird.
The sphinx was a very important symbol for Cástulo, (Linares).
Documented by José Cruz Utrera
8 IBERIAN CAPITEL OF POSSIBLE EAST-PILAR
Iberian chapiter fragment from the Los Villares de Andújar site, located about 5 km east of Andújar. The diameter of the capital would be 0.45 m.
The chapiter could be part of a pillar-stele, topped by a zoomorphic or fantastic sculpture. These types of architectural structures were funerary monuments that were located just above the burial.
Chronology: 4th century BC. C. or the V century a. C.
Documented by Maudilio Moreno
9 ROMAN INSCRIPTION
Inscription fragment from a funerary stele whose transcription is QVINTVS SEMPRONIVS. cognomen. The praenomen (QVINTVS) is known as the nomen that was the name of the family or gens (clan) and the cognomen is unknown, which was a second family name that specified within the family the branch to which it belonged.
In the third line appears AN (NORVM), which refers to the years that the deceased lived, and which cannot be determined by the fragmentation of the inscription.
Chronology: first half of the 1st century AD. C. (Tiberio-Claudio era).
Documented by Sebastián Corzo.
10 IBERIAN SPEAR
Iberian iron spearhead with great oxidation corrosion that was inserted into a wooden shaft. The panoply (set of basic weapons) of an Iberian soldier was made up of attack weapons and protection elements. The falcata, the caetra or shield, the soliferreum and the spear stand out. Iberian weapons cast exclusively for a warrior after his death were bent to render them useless, they were placed on their chests and burned with a warrior, which is why they appear in Iberian necropolis.
Chronology: s. VII a. C. - s. I a. C.